A recent study of the correlation between dehydration and stroke severity* confirms what water advocate and radio host Sharon Kleyne has been saying for decades.† Kleyne believes that dehydration – lack of sufficient water in the body – is extremely widespread and could affect as much as 90 percent of the US population. Kleyne further believes that research will eventually show that dehydration is a factor in nearly all disease, including aging and stroke.
The syndicated radio show, hosted by Sharon Kleyne, is heard weekly on VoiceAmerica and Apple iTunes. The education oriented show is sponsored by Bio-Logic Aqua® Research, a global research and technology center founded by Kleyne and specializing in fresh water, the atmosphere and dehydration. Nature’s Mist® Face of the Water® is the Research Center’s signature product for dry and dehydrated skin and eyes.
The reason dehydration has such a far reaching impact on the human body and health, Kleyne explains, is that every process, structure and cell of the body requires water to function properly. The body is usually estimated to be 60 to 70 percent water by volume. When calculated by number of molecules rather than volume, says Kleyne, the body is probably 99 percent water (since water molecules are very small). Like the Earth, the body is a water recycling machine that to survive, must constantly eliminates used water and constantly replaces it with new water.
The body obtains water, according to Kleyne, from drinking via the stomach, and by absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere through the skin, lungs and eyes.
Dehydration weakens every part of the body that requires water, which is every part of the body, including bones and teeth, Kleyne explains. Dehydration especially weakens the immune system, muscles and the cardiovascular system. Dehydration can lead to heart and kidney disorders, stroke, lowered disease resistance and reduced effectiveness of medication. Severe dehydration can be fatal. .
Nearly everyone, Kleyne believes, is slightly dehydrated. With climate change, air pollution, increasing global drought and changes in atmospheric water vapor, the incidence and severity of dehydration is increasing worldwide. The most common risk factors for stroke – age, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, alcohol and drug use, diabetes, inactivity, obesity, poor diet and high stress – are also common risk factors for dehydration.
The elderly are at high risk for dehydration, says Kleyne, in part because as humans age, their thirst reflex diminishes. The elderly also tend to consume large amounts of medication, which is often dehydrating. Older individuals sometime avoid drinking at night so they won’t have to get up to relieve themselves.
Dehydration symptoms, according to Kleyne, include loss of appetite, thirst, dry mouth, headache, dry skin and eyes, low urine production, fatigue, lethargy, irritability and depression.
While body image issues and negative food attitudes are a major part of Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge Eating, there is a deeper and darker side to these disorders. Statistics collected by Queendom.com through their Eating Disorders and Emotional Eating Test reveal that individuals dealing with eating disorders are often plagued by depression, anxiety, and other debilitating mental health problems. Researchers at Queendom.com urge sufferers to seek medical help as well as psychological counseling for a more well-rounded healing approach.
February 22 to 28 marks Eating Disorder Awareness Week, a campaign to bring attention to one of the most chronic mental health issues, and for good reason. Research by the Eating Disorders Coalition indicates that eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of any mental illness, with only 1 in 10 people seeking treatment.
Eating disorders are more than just a weight issue, however. After analyzing data from 465 people who have been diagnosed with an eating disorder, research by Queendom reveals that eating disorders are both a physical and psychological battle.
According to Queendom’s study:
45% of individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder have low self-confidence.
58% believe that they will never be loved unless they have a perfect body.
56% crave other people’s approval.
40% have a pessimistic outlook about their life and their future.
70% ruminate excessively and obsess about problems in their life.
56% find that their life is too stressful or difficult.
72% tend to have difficult overcoming failure.
Queendom’s study also indicates that eating disorder sufferers are more likely to experience symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, including:
Persistent feelings of emptiness (63%)
Loss of interest in activities that they used to enjoy (50%)
Tendency to cry for no apparent reason (52%)
Feelings of worthlessness (53%)
Feelings of sadness (60%)
Feeling like they have nothing to look forward to (47%)
Feeling like they are losing control (69%)
Tendency to focus on upsetting situations or events (63%)
Chronic worrying (73%)
Fear of what the future will bring (61%)
Edginess and tension (63%)
“When it comes to eating disorders, we need to treat more than the physical repercussions, like nutritional deficiencies and unhealthy body weight,” explains Dr. Jerabek, president of PsychTests, the company that runs Queendom.com. “It’s unclear as to whether depression and anxiety are precursors to eating disorders or vice versa. What is clear is that there is significant comorbidity between eating disorders and anxiety or depression-related disorders. And that is aside from the fact that 57% of the people in our eating disorder sample indicated that they have experienced physical, sexual, or some other form of abuse.”
“If we hope to help women and men who have eating disorders, we need to focus on both the physical side of the disorder as well as the underlying psychological factors. Otherwise, there is a significant risk of falling back into unhealthy and potentially dangerous eating habits.”
Professional users of this assessment (therapists, life coaches and counselors) can request a free demo of the Self-esteem Test or any other assessments from ARCH Profile’s extensive battery: http://hrtests.archprofile.com/testdrive_gen_1
Psychtests.com is a subsidiary of PsychTests AIM Inc. PsychTests.com is a site that creates an interactive venue for self-exploration with a healthy dose of fun. The site offers a full range of professional-quality, scientifically validated psychological assessments that empower people to grow and reach their real potential through insightful feedback and detailed, custom-tailored analysis.
PsychTests AIM Inc. originally appeared on the internet scene in 1996. Since its inception, it has become a pre-eminent provider of psychological assessment products and services to human resource personnel, therapists, academics, researchers and a host of other professionals around the world. PsychTests AIM Inc. staff is comprised of a dedicated team of psychologists, test developers, researchers, statisticians, writers, and artificial intelligence experts (see ARCHProfile.com). The company’s research division, Plumeus Inc., is supported in part by Research and Development Tax Credit awarded by Industry Canada.
A new study published in the journal Nature found that genetics plays a bigger role in the development of obesity than was previously thought. Researchers from the University of Michigan unveiled the results of a genome-wide association study looking at body mass index (BMI), a common measure of obesity, in close to 400,000 individuals (Nature, 518:197-206;February 11, 2015).
This new research finds that as much as 21% of BMI variation can be accounted for by genetics. There are about 100 locations across the genome that plays roles in various obesity traits, double than what was previously thought.
“This research may help determine who is at risk of developing diseases associated with obesity and may lend insight into future treatment,” says Elaine Trujillo, nutritionist and author of The Calories In Calories Out Cookbook. “We have known that one size does not fit all when it comes to weight gain, development of risk factors and even obesity treatment. Now we have more research to support that notion,” Trujillo adds.
According to Caroline Apovian, Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics and the Director of the Nutrition and Weight Management Center, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, “For those of us treating obesity, this is exciting news because particular genes and pathways affecting BMI have been implicated that respond to changes in eating behavior. Once we can figure out which of these genes are implicated in each patient, we can tailor the treatment of their obesity based on their particular genetic profile. For example, one of the pathways implicated in this paper is one that is the proposed mechanism of action of the combination of drugs recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of obesity – topiramate/phentermine. Based on genetic profiles, we may be able to predict which patients will be successful at weight loss with this particular drug combination (topiramate/phentermine) as opposed to another treatment if they have this pathway variation. Also, we may be able to predict who will do well with bariatric surgery in the future.”
In a companion paper on waist-to-hip circumference ratios, 49 sites in the genome were identified (Nature 518:187-186; February 12, 2015). The waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference alone are used to determine fat distribution and abdominal fatness and is a marker for developing diseases associated with obesity. Men who have waist circumferences greater than 40 inches and women who have waist circumferences greater than 35 inches are at higher risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardio-vascular disease.
Much more research is needed to determine how the genetic variations in individuals lead to weight gain in some and not in others. Some of the genes involved in obesity may be related to other diseases, this research is a step in uncovering the biological basis to a whole host of metabolic diseases. Although genetic background may be a useful tool in the future for developing personalized diets for weight loss and health, those who are already living in calorie balance and engaging in regular physical activity will have the basis for a foundation for healthy living.
CATHERINE JONES is the award-winning author or coauthor of numerous cookbooks including The Calories In, Calories Out Cookbook, Eating for Pregnancy, and Eating for Lower Cholesterol. She is the co-founder of the nonprofit Share Your Calories, an app developer, blogger, and a freelance journalist. ELAINE TRUJILLO, MS, RDN, is a nutritionist who has years of experience promoting nutrition and health and has written numerous scientific journal articles, chapters and textbooks.